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Ӥѭͧ͡âͧǵҧȵ֡͡һѵʵظ ͧôš
Ӥѭͧ͡âͧǵҧȵ֡͡һѵʵظ ͧôš
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           繷ҺѹѡԪҡеҧ اظҪҹբͧ ԭͧԴ͡ѹҹ֧ 400 һҧ ..1350-1767 ժ§繷訴ӡѹͧ÷ʧѺ͹ҹҧǹҹСҧѴӤѭѪҹ ظ㹤çӢͧѡѵʵ š 㹰ҹзͧҤҢдѺҹҪҵԷӤѭҡ˹ աԭѹաѺӹҨлȹ˭ û ੾㹪ǧʵȵɷ 16-18 ؤûҧ觡ѹԷԾŷҧä ʹǧҳҹԤ ѧµѹ͡§ҧҧҧǴ
           اظؤ ҡФӾó͡âͧǵҧҵ©Ѻ ͡âͧʵ ᷹áͧѷԹµѹͧ͡ѹ㹻 ..1624 ҧ㹺ѹ֡ͧҹ յ ѹ Ե պó㹺ѹ֡ͧ ѹ Եͧա (ôѹ֡ѵʵظ ͧҹ յ ѹ ๵ǧ ǹ ʹ ŻҡèѴ ..2546) ظµҢͧ͹ҡᴹؤ Ҿѡɳ繹ʧҧ 躹зкäҤҧӷдǡó 鹷ҧͧѹ§ Ѻѹ͡ §˹ Ѵҹ Թҡ ѺäҢѡɳ ҳԪ ˵عظҨ֧ӡõԴͤҢ·ҧҧͧѺҹҪҵ
           á ظҡҢ·駡ѺѰ ੾СѺչ Թ СѺ͹ҹ§ չ鹪ӹҭäкҹҹҹѺѹ ͡ҡظҡҡѺ Թ ǹ 駾ǡѺ
           õ繪ûҵáԹҧ·ҧҶ֧ظ ..1511 աäҢԭաѺ¡͹û ԴªѹͪǴѵ ѧ н 觪ǵҧҵЪҵ ҧ 㹡ԹҧҤҢ¡ѺظҴ ѧҡ§ҹͨ·ǵҧҵҹ鹺ѹ֡觡ѺѧȢͧ
           ԹҧҨҡᴹŷѡԹҧ ҧҵԨ繵ͧҷѡҹ ͫ ͫاͨѴҫԹ ªҵԡѺкҪҹحҵ駺ҹ͹ҧظ ֧ժͧҵԵҧʶҵͧ͢Ъҵ㹪 ѧҡѡҹҧҳը֧ءѹ ͡ҡѧҡ´ǡѺҹͧҵԵҧ͡âͧͤҵҧҵԷ繴µͧա
           ظҨ֧繷ͧ价ᴹ ÷ռ餹ªҵ ʹ ԹҧҵԴ Ң ѧѹظ ʶҹҾᵡҧѹ -سҸԤسͧѵ ҨзçչºǡѺǵҧҵᵡҧѹѪ ͡ҡ㹺ҧѪ Ҫӹѡդѹ š¹ҧС÷ٵѺ»ȴ ੾蹴Թ й³
           çǡѺظؤǶ֧ҧ鹹 Ѩغѹŧٻѡɳͧҳʶҹѡѡѧ 觡Żҡ Թ֡¡Ǩ شкóѧó Դ͡ѹԺ Шеͧ֡Ҥ鹤ҵաҡ ͡ҡ ѡҳ ѧͧǨͺѺѡҹҧѵʵѹ֡ѡɳѡ÷繨ӹǹҡ
           ҡѡѡѧͧظҷ㹻Ѩغѹѡҹó ١ҧѺԹʧ Ҵ¡âش ¹ 件֧úó١ѡԪ㹺ҧؤ բͨӡѴҡ㹡ûеԴе ҧͧǢͧظҢó 餹ѧ֡ҧ֡ ѧҨ֧ͧ͡ѡҹռ ˵ءó椹騴ѹ֡һСͺЪ׹ѹ١ͧ ͧҾ㹻ѵʵ ҧó ҧáѡҹ˵آͧ·ѹ֡ͧؤ͹¡ا駷ͧ ١ǹ˭ ʹ鹾кҷ稾ؤѵԹ ôǺѧ¹ ҷз 蹡µǧ ҪǴéѺ¾ҪѵŢ Ш֡Ѵ⾸繵
           ѡҹҧ͡ ѹ֡˵آͧҹҪҵԷǢͧѺظؤա繨ӹǹҡ ҨЪ䢻ȹ͸Ժ˵ءó Դظ㹺ҧ˵ءó ͡ҡѧἹԹظҷӢ鹵ҳ Ҿ¹ŻԹҧҵԷҴ´ؤ ʶҹ ˵ءóӤѭ͹㴵͹˹觢ͧظؤ ͧҧٻ ´·ѹ֡ѡҹ͡ Ҿ¹Ἱ ͧ«͡â鹻ǡѺظҨӹǹҡ٭Ͷ١ͤ駡اᵡ ǹ͡âͧǵҧҵԷ˵ءó 騴ѹ֡ҵҧ ҧѺ վҵҧҵ 褹ǹ˭ѧբͨӡѴ öҶ֧͡õҧҵҹ ֧͡ ֡͡õҧҵԡѹҧҧҧҡѡ
           㹻Ѩغѹ اظѺâ鹷¹ôšҧҹѲ ..2534 觻㹰ҹ繻ȷҢͧôš觹 ˹ҷ͹ѭôš ..1972 еͧ͹ѡôظҹҧ׹ ͡ҡѧѧͧ֡Ҥ鹤͹ʹͧǢͧظ ʹ㨷еҧҵ㨫Һ еͧ͹ѡèѴ ôѺͧͧ ͷ¡ tangible cultural heritage ѹҳʶҹ ҳѵ ʹҳҺdzդӤѭǢͧѺҳѵʶҹҹ Шеͧ͹ѡ èѴ ôѺͧͧ intangible cultural heritage Ǻѹ仴 (ô͡͹ѭôšͧ ..1972 ǷҧûԺѵԵ͹ѭҩѺ䢻Ѻاش ҡ whc.unesco.org)
           ¹դ ÷ҨͧǢͧѵʵظؤ·ظἹšաõԴѹѺҹҪҵ Ҩ ؤظǹ˹觢ͧѵʵҡŹ 繷Ҩеͧ㨴㹪ǧҷ˵ءóԴظҹ Դ鹺ҧ㹻§ѹѹ ԷԾŵ˵ءóǢͧظ ˵ءó ö͸Ժ˵ءóظ㹪ǧǡѹ
           Ҩ鹴ͧѹ ҧظҡѺõ 觨աéͧúͺ 500 㹻 ..2011 ..2554 Ҷ֧ҹ ҤèзӤ õʨ֧繪ûҵáԹҧҵԴ͡Ѻ? ͹ԹҧҵԴ͡Ѻ¹ õʵԴ͡ѺǺҧ Ըաҧ㹡õԴѹѺҹ? õظҹ ԴͤҢԹһ˹Ѻ ջѭҢѴ駡Ѻҧ? ˵? ظԸ䢤Ѵ駹ҧ?
           ǡѺͧ 稡ҴçҪҹҾ ç鹤зçйԾ ..2457 繤͸ԺҪǴ Ѻ¾ҪѵŢ ˵ءóաѺ稾ҸԺշ 2 觡ŻҡѴ ..2548 觷觨ҡ鹤ҡŷҡա¹
           ҡ͹Ѻ仴ٻѵʵû 㹪ǧ鹤ʵȵɷ15 о繪ǧ鹢ͧؤ觡ԹҧǨФ鹾Թᴹ (Age of Discovery) Ҫιõ թ ι ι繼ç¹͹Թطâ ..1418 ͹ʵ ʵ С÷ἹǺ仴 õöҧͧѾ١ͷ觡ҨԹ͢ǧҳҹԤ
           㹪áõ¡ͧ͢ ִͧͧҪõҢͧ͡ ҿԡ˹ 觵çѹѺط͵Źԡ ͧ᤺Ժŵ ҡͧͧ͢õʡԹ˹ִͧҪ½觷¹ ͧҵ½ط͵Źԡŧ价ҧͧ觷ŷ« 觷ŪǧѧԹ件֧ҡ͹ 繡Դ鹷ҧͧҢͧҿԡҺ½ط͵Źԡͺ 駹ִͧ鹷ҧäҷͧ ͧȢͧҿԡҹҫ觤觤ҧ
           㹵鹤ʵȵɷ16 ͧͧ͢õ ִͧԹᴹСҧͧẺõʷջҡ˹ç͡ ҿԡ˹ ҧջ׹Ҵ˭ҧ纹ԹҴ˭ ͡ѡعѺͧѾ÷ءԹҧ 蹷ͧ ҫҡѹ ŨҴմҔ鹺ѭôšҧѲ ͡¹ҡõ ҴմҔ Ѻͧҫҡѹ õͧҷõöʹԹط繨ӹǹҡ д Ѵʺ§йӴ͡ǧҳҨѡ
           õ Ѻ͡⡹鹷ʧѺǡѹҪҹҹؤʹ㹴Թᴹҿԡ˹ ͧҡѴͧʹһСͺѺ觪ԧԹᴹͪǧԧäǺͧ鹷ҧäҡѺ ҿԡҵ͹ ͹˹ҹ͡⡷׺Ѻ ¡ͧѾմԹᴹ͹ͧõ໹ С͵ҳҨѡ¡ ѹ٫ ҳҨѡ鹺 ͺ ʵȵɷ 8 ѹ٫ ¡ѹ (Moor) ҳҨѡõ໹ԭͧҨ֧ʵȵɷ 15 õ ໹нҡ͹ 鼹֡ѧѹ Ѻǡ͡ҡͺԧ 觡ҧҧʶһѵ¡ ¡ʶһѵ¡Ẻ (ô͡ ҳҨѡشᴹѹ Ե óʶԵ ӹѡоѹ ..2537)
           㹪ǧͧ 觷ҧԹͧ͢õ ໹ ҪҹҪѾ觡ͧ໹͡Թҧ令鹾šͷջԡ㹻 ..1490 ¹ѡԹͪ ʫԹ㹡ͧõʹѺʹعҡѵ໹㹡Թҧ令鹾ԡҤ駹 õʡö鹾Թᴹԡ ҫ ..1500 õö͵ҳҨѡäʵͧõʷ׺Ҩءѹ ֧Ѻҷ໹õʵҧҳҨѡ仵ҳҹԤФʵѡ š ¡ѹ
           õشҫҹ Թҧ͵ҳҹԤʶҹաä öԹҧ ؔ ¹λҧͧҿԡ طԹ ͨҷҧԹѧԹ 㹪ǧԹҢµԴ͡ѺѺҹҹ͹ ʹԹҡ 㹷شõʡöִͧеʶҹաäҢ鹷ͧ ͧ觹繰ҹ㹡õԴͤҢ¡Ѻͧҵҧ зᴧ öǺ鹷ҧäطԹ Ըա÷õִͧͧ ջЪҡ㹻 1510 պѹ֡˴ ӡæҪͧ ѧѺ˭ԧǾͧ觧ҹѺõ ١Դҡ١õʡѺԹ Ѻͤʵ ٴõ 繨ӹǹҡ зõʡҷҧä㹤ҺطԹؤ (ô Derik Garnier, Ayutthya Venice of the East, River Books 2004, chapter 5)
           㹪ǧ§ѹ ͧͧ͢õʺҧǹԹŧ件֧ѧ պѹ֡㹻 ..1505 ͧͧ͢õʻСͺ 6 ͧ͢ǡ 袹Թһͧ ҹҷҧ½Թ ͧ͢õʶ١ؾѴҢ鹽觷͹ҧشͧѧ شõ鹽СҧҡٻẺͧͧõʢ ͧҡժԴ 繻ҡӫ鹷ҧ§ͧŧ仢дǡ õ¡ͧͧ Ѩغѹѧջҡ÷õҧطԹ ͧ١ҹõ ١ҹҹѡԶժԵ ѵͧõ ͧлõ ͧ 鹷¹ôš ´·١ֹԾѴѧ˹ѡ ͻ ..2547 (..2004) ͧ ҧá õʡͺͧѧҵФͧǹҹ ҧԷԾŷҧѧѲ㹪ԵѧҨ֧ءѹ (ô ѧ : ѹҾͤ Ե óʶԵ ӹѡоѹ 2527)
           㹻 ..1511 õʡִͧСһ ͧӤѭ㹡äҢҧչѺԹ ·ͧӡúҦҿѹѹҹͧС¡͹Ҩִ ͧСҹѺͧդسѺͤԹõ ШҡСҹѡԹöԹ仫ͧȵеҧ ѧ١¡ ͧȔ дǡ Сҹõҧͧʶʵ ջҡâա ҡشõʡöǺ鹷ҧäͧҧó ˵ؼǹ˹觷ͧС鹷¹ôšͻ ..2008 ¢Ѻͧ쨷ǹͧѵʵ㹪ͧ᤺Сҷ駤 (ô whc.unesco.org/ en/list/1224)
           㹻 ..1511 ѧҡִСͧ õ觷ٵŧҨչ˭⵹ѡ 蹨ҡͧС ѧйظ ӢͧѭҶ稾ҸԺշ 2 (ͧҪ ҳ ..2034 - 2072) ѺҺѧԭç觷ٵ͹С繡õͺ᷹駹С ͧ鹢ͧҡ͹ 稾ҸԺշ 2 ç觼᷹С㹻 ..1518 еҨ֧աҧѭҡäҧѹ ѺѭҷҤթѺá·ӡѺȵѹ (ô Garnier ҧ) ѧҡõʡѺ͹حҵҤҢظͧҧͧҧ ѺҪҹԹ駺ҹ͹ʶ õʺҧѺҪҹе˹٧ ѺԹ͹ ѧѹԵ ѹҷԹҧҤҢظҧ ..1629 - 1634 óǡѺõظ㹺ѹ֡ͧҳҨѡ (ô Żҡ ..2546 ҧ)
           ѧҡõ Թ͵仨֧չѺ繪ûҵá辺鹷ҧԹͨҡԹѧչ㹻 1605 ѧԹҧ件֧ີ 1622 㹨չõʶҹաäҢ鹷 ѧԹѧеҧ ͧ (ô de Campos, Early Portuguese Account of Thailand, The Journal of Siam Society, vol XXXII, ҧ Garnier ҧ)
           ͧʹҡõ վ鹷袹Ҵû ջЪҡҡѡ öԷԾʹҹҾҧԹطüѺѧͧʹҤʵöҤǺ鹷ҧäҳҹԤ ʹ¹ʹҢͧ餹ͧҵҧ 駤ǺèѴյͧطԹ·駽ҿԡ Թ Ҷ֧Ũչ͹ Դ繨ѡô¡ Estada da India ͢«觻ʺ֧ 100 ҧ ..1520 - 1620
           繷ʹ֡һѵʵظҡѺѹѺҹҪҵԤè鹤ҵ仡 õʨ֧ҵԴ͡Ѻظѹ ظ赡ҳҹԤͧõ͹ͧ ؤ Ҫõ㹢й鹤 ź 繼ҭҡش˹㹻ѵʵͧҳҹԤõ ѧҡԸշִͧͧǢͧԹѹ õʡѺԹҧظҧԵѺõ͹ѺѹԵèҡ稾ҸԺշ 2 ѧҪ㹺ҹ͹áҡ㹡اظ ҧõա١ҹ׺Ҷ֧ءѹ
           ¹еͺӶ駢ͧǡѺõ ͵駢ѧࡵ 㹡֡ͧõظҹ ѡԪҡõҧҵԨºҡ͡ѡҹдѺзصԷ¹ªǵҧҵ繨ӹǹҡ ͡ûԢͧõʷ͡ѧɷӤѭ ѹ֡ͧù ⴹŴ ͤ ͹͹ ..1984 ѹ֡Թҧͧ Թ ຤ ҵ Ԥ ..1989 ͡âͧ ¹СԹҧ 1512 - 1515 ͹͹ ..1946
           ͡ҡͧͧõ ѧͧͧѵҵԴͤҢ¡Ѻظؤ 觡ʹҡ觷ٵѪ稾йҪ͢;кҪҹحҵ Ѵʶҹաä㹡اظ 觷ç͹حҵ駢鹷ҹͧǧҧ (Żҡ 2546 ҧ) ؤѹ觨¡͡Ҩҡ໹ҡ͵駻йѺʹҤʵԡ൹ 觡ͧҤҢеҳҹԤ觢ѹѺõл ͡ûԢͧѹ繨ӹǹҡ͡÷ǡѺظСاؤҧ͹ҧ´ǹҡ Ѩغѹաҧ ͡âͧѹԵ (ҧ) ͡ҡѧ͡âͧѷԹµѹͧ͡Ź Тͧѡ鹤Ԩªǵҧҵ ʹ繺Сú㹪ǧͧѹ-Ź ..2547 ա
           ʡաҵ˹觷ҵԴ͡Ѻؤ ੾ҧ稾й³աҪٵ͹觡ѹСѹ ͡âͧǽǡѺظҡ繨ӹǹҡ蹡ѹ੾͡稾й³ շ͡û͡÷ռ֡Ҥ鹤ѧ
           ͡âͧѡԹǡѺؤäҹҹҪҵԷҧšѺظҹ ͹ѡ֡һѵʵظҨҡѡ ǹ˭ѡҴ ҹ㹡اظ ѡʹؤǡѹԴ鹺ҧ㹭йºµҧȢͧ ͡äâͧѡԹͪǨչء ºҷҧҫҡеͧ´ҹ ǡѺ˵ءóСäҢ㹻ȵҧµѹ͡§ ҧ..1674-1723 ͡Ӥѭ觹ѡѵʵѡ֧ҭҳ йоѧռҧԧѹҡ ͡ùѺ繢ŻԷӤѭͧᵡҧҡ͡âͧѹ (ô The Junk Trade from Southeast Asia, Translation from the Tosen Fusetsu-Gaki, edited by Yoneo Ishii, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, 1998)

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Ҿ¹չӡاظ Afbeldinge der Stadt Iudiad Hooft des Choonincrick Siam
(Ҿҡ˹ѧ اظἹ ¸Ѫ ҹԪ)


           ÷ظ㹪ǧǹ˹ ͧѵʵԹСäҢͧš ֧š㨷ظ ͡اջҡἹͧѡԹйѡǨҹҪҵԨӹǹҡ 觻Ѩغѹ͡Ҷ֧ἹҳҴҡҹҧǺҧǹ ͧҡռʹἹҳ ʶҺѹ觪ҵԷǢͧ кҧ鹡١ҵվ¡͹حҵͧҢͧͼ ἹظСاؤ鹷¹ҹʹҡ Ἱҡ˹˹觢ͧ˹ѧἹͧ Ҫ õ ҳ .. 1576 ἹͧҳҨѡҴҹ ..1596 ҳҨѡ觡ҧҧԹ¡Ѻչ ٻẺວ ѡἹǽ 觾 ..1668 Ἱѧͧظ ʴͧ ʶҹӤѭ ͧ ¹ǡêǽʪ Ҥ (Jacques Nicolas Bellin) ǻ ..1750 Ἱͧ ԹͨҡҡҾйظ к´ͧӵʹ·Ѵਹ 觹ѡԹͧ͢ѷ¹ҳ 1650 Ἱѧظ¹ҾŻзҴ ѹ ԧ⺹ (Johannes Vingboons) Ǵѷ ǻ ..1665 繵 (ô Siam Mapped by Thongchai Winichakul, Silkworm Books, 1994, Ayutthaya, Venice of the East by Derick Garnier, ҧ)
           ÷ժҵԵҧʹШѴἹ ӷҧظҧ´Ѵਹ ʴظ繨شӤѭ㹡ԹҧͧҵԵҧҹ Ἱѧاظҷ١¹ҧ§ǡõҧҵԷʴ駪Էͧ ˹ҧѴҷҪѧͧйظз͹繤蹪ǵҧҵ֧֡ʧҧͧԷȹҧҵзҧѲͧظ
           ѡԹҧҹҪҵԷԹҧظ ؤҧ ըӹǹ·繹ѡѹ֡Ш´ͧԹҧ ʹԶժԵй㨤ͧ͢餹龺ҧԹҧ ҧ¹繨§ҹ觡ѺѧȢͧ 觺ѹ֡ͨҹ Ҩ¹鹨ҡͧͧҡҧҵԵҧѲ ҨͤԺҧ ͡÷դسѺѡ֡ ѡԪҡ йѡԨªЪҵԵҧ ͡âŻԷ¹¼ʶҹԧ ˵ءó㹪ǧҹԧ ˵ءóҾ赹ҡͧͧ 觼ԹҧѧͼӺѹ֡֡ҡͧǨͺº§ͤ١ͧ
           ͡ҹǹ˭١Ѵѡ㹷ҧҪ 繢ͧѺѡԹҧ͹ѡ÷ٵҧҵ蹵֡ҡ͹Թҧ ¡ҧ͡ ٵѧԹҧҡԹèʹѭзӡäҡѺا㹻 ..2368-2369 Ѫ¾кҷ稾й Ѫŷ 3 觡اѵԹ ¹¨ҡͷԹҧ§ҹѧŢҹءѰŷԹ ٴ֧˹ͧҧ觺ҧҹҾºҼҪGovernor General ѧ¡º§ ºѹ֡繵˹ Viceroy ػҪ 觪 ҧ֧㹨¢ͧҹ ¹ Loubere Ẻҽ ͹ ¶֧ Թҧҡ͹˹¹ѹ֡͡÷ҧѧҧԧ 觹Ҩ Ҫٵǽʷ¾й³ѹ֡˵ءóͧǢͧҪҳҨѡ ..1693 (ô͡ ι 5 ˹ 21 Ե óʶԵ ŻҡèѴ ..2551)
           㹻Ѩغѹ͡ ѹ֡ԹҧͧǵҧҵԷԹҧظʹյ աеվ͡ѧҡ觢鹷ѡ֡йѡԨ·ʹͧǢͧظҷҹѧöҶ֧ªҡ͡ҹҧҧ鹡·ɷҹ
           㹺ô͡÷ѡҹҹҪҵǡѺظҷռ֡ҧԧѹҡش繨͡âͧͤе᷹ҡȵҧ㹤ʵȵɷ 17 ੾͡ûԪشѹҾҧ¡ѺҹҪҵ ʵȵɷ 17 ӹǹ 5 ش觪ҵԢͧǺҨҡͨ˵آͧӹѡҹԹ ШѴ ..1915-1921 ͡êشդسٻõ͹ѡ鹤ҷ͡Ҷ֧ª ͧҡöҧҾ (reconstruct) ҧѵʵ ¡äҹҹҪҵؤ麹ѡҹ稨ԧ誹ҵԵҧؤ¹ѹ֡
           س˭ԧŷѾ 蹡Ԩ ӹ¡ش觪ҵ㹪ǧ 30 鹾͡êشͧлѺ͡ 繨ӹǹҡ ֧ӵ鹩Ѻͧҵҧ Ҽؾѧ᷺ԡҹҵվСŻҡèѴ˹ ҡժǵҧ ˹ҷʶҹٵҧ㹻«͡ѹҧǴ Ѵѧաþա (ҡӺ͡Ңͧ س˭ԧ ŷѾ 蹡Ԩ ҪѳԵ Ѻ¹ 5 Ҿѹ 2552) ҧá Żҡ㹪ǧǡѹ Ѵ͡êش͡ еվ͡Ǻҧ ͻ ..2515 ͡ѧѴ ͡õҧǡѺظҷҡشաªҡش繨 ͡稾й³ 觷çͧҪҧ ..1656 - 1688 ..2199 - 2231 ҡѡ֡͹ѡԨؤöӺѹ֡ͧ ҡ ҵԷ˵ءóǡѹ ͤ¤֧ѹ 㹪ǧǡѹ§ѹ֡ºº öҧҾ˵ءóԶժԵ㹡اظ ҧ§ЪѴਹҡش
           ÷ԷҪѯйظ ʶҺѹش֡㹨ѧѴйظͧôš лʸѧҴѧԷǹ֡Ҥ鹤ҢŨҡѡҹҧ ѡҹͧТͧҧҵ 觨ЪöѡظҨҡҧ Ѵਹж١ͧ ˵ռҡ ÷Է¨ҧѧ˹ѧ ͡ ٻ¹ ἹóǡѺظ֡ ԡѡ֡ ѡ鹤Ԩ §Ѻش еҧ ҧԹ๵ Ҩ֡ǡѺظդдǡС˹Ǵ觢

The importance of foreigner document to the study of Ayutthaya history, the world heritage city
Sawitree Suwansathit

           It is well known among Thai and foreign scholars that the kingdom of Ayutthaya of Siam where has been very progressed for more than 400 years during 1350-176. it was not only memorialized in repeating war with its neighbors for a long time and constructed the important temple in each reign but Ayutthaya was in memory of historists as it was the most important international port for trading of Asia also. Moreover, it established trading relationship with many great countries in both Asia and Europe, especially during 16-18th century. This was the period which Europe countries rivaling each other to expand their trading and rapidly expand their colony countries in Southeast Asia.
           Ayutthaya in that period appeared its name and was described in many document of foreign countries such as Yos Scothens document who was the first representative from the East India Company of Holland in Siam since 1624 referred to the record of Fran Fleat or Wan Warit and additional record of Wan warit as well (See the whole Ayutthaya history record of Fran Fleat, translated by Nantha Woranetiwong and Wanasri Samanasen, Fine Arts, printed by Department 2546). In the eyes of visitors in that period, Ayutthaya was the most beautiful city located on the island which had comfortable and prosper transportation. Besides, it was in route of the southwest and the northeast monsoon. This could shorten the sailing time a lot. It was suitable for trading (merchant Navy). As a result, sailing trade with international was very progress.
           In the beginning, Ayutthaya traded with other states in Asia, especially China, India and its neighbors. China has been skillful in junk trading for 1000 years. Later, Ayutthaya opened trading with Japan, India, Malayu and Vietnam including Arab and Persia.
           Due to Portuguese and Europe was the first country sailing to Ayutthaya in 1511, so it firstly made contact and established trading relationship with Ayutthaya. Later on, Holland or Dutch, England and France came to contact with Ayutthaya. Each nation had different objectives in contacting with Ayutthaya depending on the message in their reports or mail sending from their countries.
           Sailing for a long distance made it necessary to find the accommodation for repair the streamer and purchase the products. Many foreigners were allowed to construct the house and stayed in Ayutthaya. As a result, there were foreign communities or churches depending on the belief of each nation or communities which is the archaeological evidences in the present. Moreover, information relating to those villages still remained in the document of merchant in that period.
           Ayutthaya was well known for many countries that it was the city with people from different countries, languages and religion who came for making contact, trading and stayed in Ayutthaya in different status. However, they were under the royal grace of Thai king. There was a different policy about foreigners in each reign. In addition, Siam royal court had good relationship with many countries, especially in the reign of King Narai the Great.
           Nowadays, the memory about Ayutthaya in the period mentioned above remains in form of the destroyed places which the Fine Arts Department has surveyed, delved and restored for many years and they must continues studying. Further, archeologists need to check with historical record which has many written records as well.
           The destroyed city of Ayutthaya which we have seen nowadays is not all evidences because it was destroyed by war and delved, including incorrectly restored in some period. This made difficulty to link up and make up the story to communicate to the next generation for understand and study. Therefore, we must use the document of persons who was in the real situation for confirmation the history. However, Thai annals evidence recorded the story about the period before the second defeat was almost destroyed. The remaining was collected and revised by the king in early Rattanakosin such as First Thai enacted Law, Royal annals of hand writing of his Majesty and Wat Pho inscription.
           There are many document evidences which had the same story of Ayutthaya with international annals. This may help answering and describing the events occurred in Ayutthaya period. Further, the map for sailing to Ayutthaya which was made in ancient age and art treasures painted by foreign artists who gave detail of person, location and important situation of Ayutthaya that time helps us know and understand more about the story. It is pity that record or evidence documents, painting and map of Thai which is the primary document saying about Ayutthaya, has been destroyed since the capital was defeated. For the document of foreigners who was in the real situation and recorded in other language, some were translated into other language and already published but most Thai people cannot reach those documents resulting in foreign document was not much widely studied for Thai.
           Nowadays, Ayutthaya city has been registered as a cultural world heritage in 2534 B.C. Thailand as the location of and own this world heritage must have responsibility according to the World heritage convention 1972 to conserve this heritage of Ayutthaya. Further, it must be supported for studying to present the story of Ayutthaya to interested persons both Thai and foreigners to understand the history. They must manage Visualized heritage or UNESCO called that tangible cultural heritage which includes ancient places, antiques and the area related to those ancient places. They must also conserve and manage unvisaulized heritage or intangible cultural heritage as well (See in the World heritage convention 1972 and the practices according to latest revise from website whc.unesco.org)
           The writer believed that understanding the history of Ayutthaya in the period which Ayutthaya was on the world map and contact with many countries or it was a part of international history is also necessary for us. We should know during one situation occurred, is there any related situation or affected to such situation. These situation can describe the situation occurred in Ayutthaya in the same time.
           We may start with the relationship between Ayutthaya and Portuguese which has cerebrated 500 years anniversary in 2011. We should try to understand why Portuguese is the first country that come to contact Thailand? Before contacted with Thailand, which countries do Portuguese contact with and what are their objectives from contacting with those countries? When Portuguese stayed in Ayutthaya, what kind of product do they contact for trading and have they ever had conflicts with Thailand? Why? And how Ayutthaya solves those problems?
           Concern to story, Phraya Dumrong Rajanupap has studied and written in 2457 B.C. as footnote of the royal annals in the situation of establishing the relationship with France in the period of King Ramathibodi II which was printed by the Fine Arts Department in 2548 B.C. This made us eager to search for more information in this period.
           If we looked back to see Europe history in the beginning of 15th century, we would found that it was the age of survey and search for new territory (Age of Discovery) leading by the prince Henry of Portuguese whose alias was Henry, navigator. Henry found the sailing school in 1418 B.C. by teaching geography, astronomy and mapping. This is why Portuguese could create the large navy and excellent crew to sail to its colony which was far away from their country.
At first, Portuguese took its navy to siege and occupy the port named Surta of Morocco in the North Africa where is next to Atlantic Ocean near Yipranta straits. Since that situation, Portuguese continued seizing the port of Mediterranean and the port city on Atlantic Ocean to the south of Zahara desert. Nobody has ever reached this sea before. This opened almost paths linked to the port of Africa on Atlantic coast. This is for occupy the route for gold, slave and spices trading which lead prosperity to them.
           In 16th century, Portuguese navy has possessed the territory and established many strong fortresses in Morocco. In North America, there were artillery fortresses and large reservoir to conserve water for the long distance journey of navy such as Mazagun or Aljadeda which has been registered as one of cultural world heritage. Morocco has been changed the name from Portuguese to be Al Jadeda which was Arubian used in Mazagun city. Portuguese used it as the port for parking the ships and supply the food and beverage for sailing to establish its colony.
           Portuguese and Morocco has made a war for a long time since the period of Islam expansion in North Africa because of religion conflict and they fought for control the ports and trading route with South Africa. At first, Morocco people whose religion and race were Muslim and Arabs and Berber respectively, has siege the south of Portuguese and Spain and established the kingdom named Alkaloses. It was the Muslim kingdom expanded to Iberia Cope. Since 8th century, Muslim is Alkaloses which was called Moor. The kingdom of Moor in Portuguese and Spain has been progressed until 15th century. When Portuguese, Spain and France has derived out all Moor from Iberia cope, remaining only the building called Moor architecture (See in Morocco, the Easternmost by Sawitree Suwansathit, Prapansarn printing 2537 B.C. )
           During this time, sailing competitors of Portuguese was Spain. His majesty the king has given royal property to support the navy sailing to discover a new world which is North America in 1490 B.C., leaded by a navigator, Christopher Columbus who has been in the navy of Portuguese but he was supported by the king of Spain to discover America in this journey. However, Portuguese was able to discover a new territory which was Brazil in 1500, where Portuguese were able to establish a Christian kingdom of Portugal to today. Both Spanish and Portuguese could have its colonization and expanded the Christian kingdom in the "New World" at about the same time.
           However, Portuguese did not only stop at Brazil. They also sailed to set up colonies and trading in Asia. They compassed to "Leam Phayu", which changed its name to the Cape of Good Hope in the South of Africa to India. During this period, India had made a trade contacts with the Arabs before and Islam was already expanded in India. Finally, Portuguese were able to attack and achieved setting up trading stations in Goa city and use this port is a base for trade with various ports in the Persia, Arabian and the Red Sea. This makes it possible to control the trade routes in the Indian Ocean. It was recorded that Portuguese cruel attacked Goa city where population was Muslim in 1510 B.C. The people who fought were killed. Local women were forced to marry with Portuguese Goa. Children were crossing between Portuguese and India and become Christian and used Portuguese language. Portuguese become trading language in the Indian Ocean at that time (see Derik Garnier, Ayutthaya Venice of the East, River Books 2004, chapter 5).
           In the same period of time, the fleet of ship of Portuguese sailed got lost to Sri Lanka. It was noted in 1505 B.C. Portuguese maritime consisted of six ships, hunting the ship of Moor on which transported full spices the ship passing through the coast of India. A Portuguese ship was blown by the storm to the southern shore of the tip of Lanka Island. At this point, Portuguese stayed and built the fortress of Portugal style because its geography was quite well. It was the estuary which was used for transport spices for trading. Portugal called the city that the city of Galle. Currently, there is fortress built by Portuguese along the Indian Ocean and there is the descendant city of Portuguese living there. Those descendants had the same ways of life and doing craft of Portugal. The city of Portuguese and its fortress at Galle city was registered as a World Heritage Site. Unfortunately, it was heavily blew down by Tsunami and damaged in 2547 B.C. (2004). However, Portuguese has later ruled Sri Lanka for a long time, so social and cultural life has been influenced on Sri Lanka today (see Sri Lanka: Peace waited by Savitri Suwansathit, Prapansarn printing 2527).
           In 1511, Portuguese siege Malacca at the end of Malayu cape where was the important trading port between China and India. They had made a war with each other for a long time and Malacca was burned as well. Malacca was the important city for sailing traders from Portuguese because from Malacca, sailor could buy spices from islands which were later called Spices Island. Portuguese has established the city and Christian church with its fortresses as well. At this point, Portuguese can completely control spices trading routs. This is one reason that Malacca has been registered as the world heritage in 2008 together with Georgetown which were both the historical city in the strait of Malacca (see in whc.unesco.org/ en/list/1224)
           In 1511, After the lengthy siege Malacca, Portuguese has sent the ambassadors to the junk sailing from Malacca into the kingdom of Ayutthaya to offer the gift to the King Ramathidodi II (reigned during 2034 - 2072) and invited Thai ambassadors to Malacca in return. Due to Malacca has been colony of Thailand before, King Ramathidodi II sent representatives to Malacca in 1518 and later on, made trading contract with each other. This was the first tripartite contract that Thailand made with the western country (see in Grainer). Later, Portuguese has been allowed to have a free trade in Ayutthaya and many southern cities. They were allowed to establish the house and churches. Some Portuguese was in the high position with high salary. Holland has made a trade with Ayutthaya during the year 1629 1634. Portuguese in Ayutthaya were described in the record of Siam kingdom (see in Fine Arts Department 2546 B.C.)
           After that, Portuguese continue sailing to China. Is was regarded as first Europe country that found the sea route from India to china in 1605 and could traveled to Tibet as well in 1622. Portuguese established the trading station in Macao, China and also sailed to the islands with spices (see in de Campos, Early Portuguese Account of Thailand, The Journal of Siam Society, vol XXXII, referred in Grainier)
           it is very interesting that Portuguese was the small country in Europe with its less population, can spread their power of sailing and the belief in religion spread made them control trading routes in colony countries and also changed religion and language of people in each ports, including request tax from the ports of India ocean in Africa, India and the sea of south China. Finally, it becomes the empire of Estrada da India which was successful for 100 years during 1520 1620.
           The issue interested by many people to study Ayutthaya history and international relationship is why Europe comes to contact with Ayutthaya peacefully and Ayutthaya was not its colony as other ports in that period although the regent of Portuguese in Asia was Asbucerke who has been known as the cruelest person in the history about Portugueses colony in Asia as can be seen the way he siege Guar of India. However, Portuguese friendly come to contact with Ayutthaya and they were welcomed from the King Ramathibodi II and also stayed helping Ayutthaya and had lineage until today.
           The author do not attempt to answer all questions about Portugal but noted further that to study about Portugal in Asia and Ayutthaya, foreign scholars had more advantage because it had both primary and secondary written evidences written by foreigners. The primary document translated into English were the record of Jay Rollnimo LoBo, translated by Donald Ames Rockhard and printed at London in 1984 and also the journey record of Mendes Pinto, translated by Rebecca Card in Chicago in 1989 and the document of Temo Pires written in Malacca and India during1512 1515, printed at London in 1946
           In addition to Portugal, Dutch also come to contact with Ayutthaya. This is very interesting because they sent the ambassadors to Thailand since the period of King Naresuan the Great to seek royal permission to establish trading station in the kingdom of Ayutthaya and was allowed to found in the south of capital city (Fine Arts Department 2546). In that era, Holland has just separated from Spain to establish the country and become Christian, protestant sect. and started sailing for trading and colonization in Asia rivaling Portugal and other countries. There were many primary documents of Holland and it was the document which quite gives more detail about Ayutthaya and Siam in that era. Currently, those documents were translated into Thai such as Documenty of Wanwarit. Moreover, there is also document relating to East India of Netherlands and document of foreign researchers which presented in articles or lectures on relationship between Thailand-Netherlands 2547 B.C.
           France is one country that comes to make contact with Thailand in many eras, especially in the reign of King Narai. They sent the envoy to visit each other. Document of France about Ayutthaya are also available as well, especially the large number of documents written in the reign of King Narai. There were both primary document and documents that have been studied later period.
           Documents of sailors relating to Japan in the period of maritime international trading with Ayutthaya seemed not to be interested by Ayutthaya historist. Most Thai people know Yamada and know Japanese village in Ayutthaya but they have never been interested what happened in Japan and international policy of Japan. All documents relating to trading situation and environment in foreign countries in Southeast Asia during 1674-1723, of Chinese sailors stopped at Na Nga Sa Ki port and given to Japanese head of customhouse, is very important and well known by historists but they cannot reach those documents because it was written in ancient Japanese. Nowadays, it was translated into English and this document become primary information and had different perspectives from the west one. (see in The Junk Trade from Southeast Asia, Translation from the Tosen Fusetsu-Gaki, edited by Yoneo Ishii, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, 1998)
           Being a part of sailing and world trading history of Ayutthaya, it is not surprised that Ayutthaya or Siam was appeared in the map of sailors and national surveyors. Recently, Thai people have opportunity to reach some ancient map because there were some people interesting in map collecting and related National institutes bought it. Some of them were publicized by the owner permission. The map of Ayutthaya or Siam finding that most interesting are Siam map appeared on the first page of maps combination of Fenald Varz Durado, Portuguese, in 1576 and the map of Siam kingdom painted by Yoharnes Meteyuth in 1596 which Siam located between India and China and had the junk on the Bengal gulf printed by France map writer in 1668, layout of Ayutthaya showed its city location and important place on city island written by France engineer named Jacques Nicolas Berlin. In 1750, navigating map of sailing from the Chao Phraya estuary into Ayutthaya clearly gave detail of the river written in 1650 by Dutch sailor, Layout of Ayutthaya written in 1665 by Johannes Vingboons, Dutch (see in Siam Mapped by Thongchai Winichakul, Silkworm Books, 1994, and Ayutthaya, Venice of the East by Derick Garnier)
           Made the map by foreigners for leading to Ayutthaya showed that Ayutthaya was the important destination of those countries and the layout of Ayutthaya neatly written by foreign engineer showing its location, road and temple or Royal palace of Ayutthaya reflected admiration of foreigners to the beauty of natural view and culture of Ayutthaya.
           Travelers coming to Ayutthaya in each period were almost the good recorder and they recorded the detail of their journey, including lifestyle and habits of local people on the way. Some of them wrote a letter or report returned to their countries. Although those records written from different perspectives of foreigners and had prejudice, it become very important document for Thai student, scholars and researchers because it is primary document that was written by a persons who was in real situation and persons who studied from those document must check and compare for accuracy.
           Those documents mostly were printed and kept for using in government service and used for primary information for traveler or ambassadors in later period to study before coming to Siam. For example, when an army captain, Burney, ambassador from England come from India to negotiate for relationships treaty and establish trading with Siam in 2368-2369 B.C. in the king Rama III of Rattanakosin, they has written the letter from ship to report to government secretary in India referring to position of the south ruler which some of them was in the position of Chao Phraya or Governor General. Also, it was referred that Loubere has recorded that the position of Viceroy and the name of Loubere that Burney referred in his letter written in Loubere in France. It was sure that Burney means a person who has come before him and has been recorded and used by England as reference. This might be La Loubere, ambassador of France who come in the period of King Narai and recorded the story of Siam since 1693 (see the document of Henry Burney 5, page 21 translated by Sawitree Suwansathit, printed by Fine Arts Department 2551)
           Currently, journey records of foreigners who come to Ayutthaya in the past has been translated into both English and Thai. Students and researchers interested in the story of Ayutthaya can reach and used benefit for many past decades.
           Document related to Ayutthaya history which had been interested by many people is the documents of traders and representatives from different countries in 17th century, especially the primary document of relationship between Thailand and international in 17th century for 5 copies. Natuional library of Thailand has combined the copies of those documents from annals in India and printed in 1915-1921. This document is very useful for researchers to reach and use because it can be brought for historical analysis and reconstruct the fact in that period.
           Lady Kunsub Ketmankit, director of national library in last 30 years ago, found these documents mixed with other documents, so those documents were reconstructed and sell by Fine Arts Department. Many foreigner and ambassadors in Thailand bought it all. Now, it has not been repeat printed (told by Lady Kunsub Ketmankit on 5 February 2552). However, Fine Arts Department has translated these documents into Thai and printed only some of them in 2515 B.C. The foreign documents about Ayutthaya have the most and they are very beneficial as well, especially documents in the reign of King Narai during 1656 1688 or 2199 2231 B.C. if students or researchers can combine the records from many countries in the same or similar situation, they can create clearly and closer image of situation and lifestyle in Ayutthaya.
           That Ayutthaya Rajaphat University is the higher education in Ayutthaya province where is the world heritage site. It does not refuse that social expects the university participate in supporting the study and search information from both Thai and foreign evidences. This helps us to know and understand Ayutthaya in different perspectives and our understanding will be more clear, reasonable and accurate. To establish the sources of books, documents, painting and completed map of Ayutthaya or give service to students, researcher by linked to the library in both Thailand and other countries can help more easily and faster to study about Ayutthaya.